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National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASA's Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment

ABoVE

Miller-C-01 Project Profile
  (updated 02-Sep-2016)
Project Title:CARVE (Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment) Airborne Observations of Carbon Dynamics in the Vulnerable Arctic-Boreal Ecosystems of Northwestern Canada - CARVE-CAN
Project Lead: Charles (Chip) Miller, NASA JPL
Project Funding: 2014 - 2017
NASA (agency representative: Diane Wickland)
Project Type:NASA -- joined ABoVE in 2015
Solicitation:NASA: Carbon Cycle Science (2013)
Abstract: 5-year series of intensive aircraft campaigns to the Alaskan Arctic to bridge critical gaps in our knowledge and understanding of Arctic ecosystems, linkages between the Arctic hydrologic and terrestrial carbon cycles, and the feedbacks from fires and thawing permafrost. CARVE-CAN (2013NRA-Carbon Cycle Science) Dramatic increases in warming, f ... [more]
ABoVE Science Questions
  • Carbon Pools
ABoVE Disciplinary Theme
  • Carbon Dynamics
Participants: Project Lead(s):Participant(s):

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Project URL(s): http://ilma.jpl.nasa.gov/portal/
 
Research
Contributions:
Status: Archived Date When Available: June 2016
Product Title:  CARVE: CH4, CO2, and CO Atmospheric Concentrations, CARVE Tower, Alaska, 2012-2014
Description:  This data set provides hourly atmospheric concentrations of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) as mole fractions, from January 2012 to December 2014 measured at the CARVE flux tower in Fox, Alaska (17 km north of Fairbanks) as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). High-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (WRF- STILT), along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM) were used to determine the influence region of the tower site and investigate the inter-annual and seasonal variability of regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations. Modeled estimates of CH4, CO2, and CO background concentrations are provided. The WRF-STILT model 'footprints' for the CARVE tower are provided with this data set.
This data set includes one data file of greenhouse gas measurements in comma-separated text (*.csv) format and 6370 netCDF (*.nc) files representing gridded footprints from WRF-STILT simulations.
Expected Users:  carbon cycle scientists
Metadata URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1316
Data Server URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1316
Archived Data Citation:  Karion, A., C. Sweeney, J.B. Miller, A.E. Andrews, R. Commane, S.J. Dinardo, J. Henderson, J.O.W. Lindaas, J. Lin, K. Luus, T. Newberger, P. Tans, S.C. Wofsy, S. Wolter, and C.E. Miller. 2016. CARVE: CH4, CO2, and CO Atmospheric Concentrations, CARVE Tower, Alaska, 2012-2014. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1316


Status: Archived Date When Available: June 2016
Product Title:  CARVE: Monthly Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (2009-2013) and Modeled Fluxes, Alaska
Description:  This data set reports monthly averages of atmospheric CO2 concentration from satellite and airborne observations between 2009 and 2013 and simulated present and future monthly concentrations and land-atmosphere CO2 flux for periods between 1990 and 2200. Atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements were obtained from Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) and NOAA Arctic Coast Guard (ACG) flights, the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), and NOAA/ESRL vertical profile measurements at Poker Flat, Alaska (PFA). Present and future monthly CO2 concentrations and fluxes were simulated using the GEOS-Chem global tracer model and the Community Land Model, Version 4.5, for multiple regional flux and permafrost thaw scenarios.
The data are reported in 19 files in comma separated value (9) and NetCDF (10) file formats.
Expected Users:  carbon cycle scientists
Metadata URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1325
Data Server URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1325
Archived Data Citation:  Parazoo, N.C., R. Commane, S.C. Wofsy, C.D. Koven, C. Sweeney, D.M. Lawrence, J.O.W. Lindaas, R.Y-W. Chang, and C.E. Miller. 2016. CARVE: Monthly Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (2009-2013) and Modeled Fluxes, Alaska. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1325


Status: Archived Date When Available: June 2016
Product Title:  CARVE Modeled Gross Ecosystem CO2 Exchange and Respiration, Alaska, 2012-2014
Description:  This data set provides 3-hourly estimates of gross ecosystem CO2 exchange (GEE) and respiration (autotrophic and heterotrophic) for the state of Alaska from 2012 to 2014. The data were generated using the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM) and are provided at ~ 1 km2 [1/4-degree (longitude) by 1/6-degree (latitude)] pixel resolution. The PolarVPRM produces high-frequency estimates of GEE of CO2 for North American biomes from remotely-sensed data sets. For Alaska, the model used meteorological inputs from the North American regional re-analysis (NARR) and inputs of fractional snow cover and land surface water index (LSWI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Land surface greenness was factored into the model from three sources: 1) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from MODIS; 2) Solar Induced Florescence (SIF) from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2); and 3) SIF from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2). Three independent estimates of GEE are included in the data set, one for each source of greenness observations.
A total of 36 NetCDF version 3 (.nc) files are contained in this data set, one per month for the period between 1 January, 2012 and 31 December, 2014.
Expected Users:  carbon cycle scientists
Metadata URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1314
Data Server URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1314
Archived Data Citation:  Luus, K., and J. Lin. 2016. CARVE Modeled Gross Ecosystem CO2 Exchange and Respiration, Alaska, 2012-2014. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1314


Status: Archived Date When Available: August 2016
Product Title:  CARVE: L2 Atmospheric CO2, CO and CH4 Concentrations, Harvard CRDS, Alaska, 2012-2014
Description:  This data set provides atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations from airborne campaigns over the Alaskan and Canadian arctic for the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). The data were collected in situ using a four-species cavity ring-down spectrometer system (CRDS; Picarro Inc.) provided by Harvard University and are presented at 5-second intervals throughout each flight. The Harvard CRDS instrument only collected data in 2012-2014; no Harvard data are available for year 2015. Aircraft latitude, longitude, and altitude are also provided. CARVE flight campaigns took place from 2012 to 2015 between the months of March and November to enable investigation of both seasonal and inter-annual variability in atmospheric gas content. The measurements included in this data set are crucial for understanding changes in Arctic carbon cycling and the potential threats posed by thawing of Arctic permafrost.
These measurements are one part of an innovative multi-instrument remote sensing payload flown for the CARVE campaign.

There are 121 data files in netCDF (*.nc) format, one for each CARVE campaign flight in 2012-2014, with this data set.
Expected Users:  carbon cycle scientists
Metadata URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1403
Data Server URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1403
Archived Data Citation:  Chang, R.Y-W., R. Commane, J.W. Budney, B.C. Daube, A. Dayalu, E.W. Gottlieb, J.O.W. Lindaas, S. Miller, M. Pender, J.V. Pittman, J. Samra, B. Xiang, and S.C. Wofsy. 2016. CARVE: L2 Atmospheric CO2, CO and CH4 Concentrations, Harvard CRDS, Alaska, 2012-2014. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1403


Status: Archived Date When Available: August 2016
Product Title:  CARVE: L2 Atmospheric CO2, CO and CH4 Concentrations, NOAA CRDS, Alaska, 2012-2015
Description:  This data set provides atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and water vapor (H2O) concentrations from airborne campaigns over the Alaskan and Canadian arctic for the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). The data were collected in situ using a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS; Picarro Inc.) and are presented at 2-second intervals throughout each flight. Aircraft latitude, longitude, and altitude are also provided. Flight campaigns took place from 2012 to 2015 between the months of March and November to enable investigation of both seasonal and inter-annual variability in atmospheric gas content. The measurements included in this data set are crucial for understanding changes in Arctic carbon cycling and the potential threats posed by thawing of Arctic permafrost.
These measurements are one part of an innovative multi-instrument remote sensing payload flown for the CARVE campaign.

There are 121 data files in netCDF (*.nc) format, one for each CARVE campaign flight, with this data set. Note that data from 2015 have not been released yet.
Expected Users:  carbon cycle scientists
Metadata URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1401
Data Server URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1401
Archived Data Citation:  Sweeney, C., J.B. Miller, A. Karion, S.J. Dinardo, and C.E. Miller. 2016. CARVE: L2 Atmospheric CO2, CO and CH4 Concentrations, NOAA CRDS, Alaska, 2012-2015. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1401


Status: Archived Date When Available: August 2016
Product Title:  CARVE: L2 Merged Atmospheric CO2, CO, O3 and CH4 Concentrations, Alaska, 2012-2015
Description:  This data set provides atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and water vapor (H2O) concentrations from airborne campaigns over the Alaskan and Canadian arctic for the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). These data are merged and gap-filled outputs from two different cavity ring-down spectrometers (CRDS; Picarro Inc.) flown aboard the CARVE aircraft and are presented at 5-second intervals throughout each flight. Aircraft latitude, longitude, and altitude are also provided. Flight campaigns took place from 2012 to 2015 between the months of March and November to enable investigation of both seasonal and inter-annual variability in atmospheric gas content. The measurements included in this data set are crucial for understanding changes in Arctic carbon cycling and the potential threats posed by thawing of Arctic permafrost.
These measurements are one part of an innovative multi-instrument remote sensing payload flown for the CARVE campaign.

There are 3 data files in comma-separated values (*.csv) format, one for each campaign year, with this data set. Please note that 2015 year data has not been released yet.
Expected Users:  carbon cycle scientists
Metadata URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1402
Data Server URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1402
Archived Data Citation:  Budney, J.W., R.Y-W. Chang, R. Commane, B.C. Daube, A. Dayalu, S.J. Dinardo, E.W. Gottlieb, A. Karion, J.O.W. Lindaas, C.E. Miller, J.B. Miller, S. Miller, M. Pender, J.V. Pittman, J. Samra, C. Sweeney, S.C. Wofsy, and B. Xiang. 2016. CARVE: L2 Merged Atmospheric CO2, CO, O3 and CH4 Concentrations, Alaska, 2012-2015. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1402


Status: Archived Date When Available: 2015-09-01
Product Title:  CARVE: Alaskan Fire Emissions Database (AKFED), 2001-2013
Description:  This data set provides estimates of annual carbon emissions (kg carbon per square meter) from boreal fires at 450-m resolution for the state of Alaska between 2001 and 2013. To produce these data, daily burned area for 2001 to 2013 was mapped using imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) combined with perimeters from the Alaska Large Fire Database. Carbon consumption was calibrated using available field measurements from black spruce forests in Alaska. Above- and below-ground carbon consumption were modeled based on environmental variables including elevation, day of burning within the fire season, pre-fire tree cover and the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR). Modeled uncertainties in carbon consumption are included in the data set. The derived burn area and carbon emissions product, referred to as the Alaskan Fire Emissions Database (AKFED), provides a resource for study of the environmental controls on daily fire dynamics, boreal fire emissions in biogeochemical models, and potential feedbacks from changing fire regimes.
Expected Users:  carbon cycle scientists and those with an interest in Arctic ecosystems
Metadata URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1282
Data Server URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1282
Archived Data Citation:  Veraverbeke, S., B.M. Rogers, and J.T. Randerson. 2015. CARVE: Alaskan Fire Emissions Database (AKFED), 2001-2013. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1282

Site(s) of Data Collection:

66.00000,-155.00000

Status: Archived Date When Available: 2015-12-01
Product Title:  CARVE-ARCSS: Methane Loss From Arctic- Fluxes From the Alaskan North Slope, 2012-2014
Description:  This data set provides the results of (1) year-round measurements of methane (CH4) flux along with soil and air temperatures at five eddy covariance towers at sites located in the Alaskan Arctic tundra from June 2013 to December 2014 and (2) airborne CH4 and ozone (O3) measurements collected during Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) flight campaigns for years 2012 through 2014. The included site-level flux data at half-hourly intervals were calculated following standard eddy covariance data processing procedures. Also reported are daily mean methane flux, soil temperature with depth, and air temperature for each tower site. Also identified for each flux tower site were the 'zero curtain' periods of extended cold when soil temperatures were poised near 0 degrees C. The reported CARVE airborne CH4 and O3 data were aggregated horizontally at 5 km intervals. Measurement heights are reported. These aircraft positions were treated as receptors in a Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model coupled with meteorology fields from the polar variant of the Weather and Research Forecasting model (WRF), in order to model the land surface influence on the aircraft-observed methane concentrations. The summed land surface influence on the aircraft data at each position is reported. For each airborne measurement, 2D surface influence fields (i.e. footprints) at two different spatial resolutions were derived using the WRF-STILT simulations. These gridded footprints are provided as netCDF formatted files. Regional C-CH4 fluxes were calculated from the CARVE CH4 data and footprints for the period 2012-2014 and are also included with this data set. Acknowledgements: Data collection efforts were funded by NSF ARCSS project 'Methane Loss From Arctic' (ARCSS #1204263; http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1204263) and by NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE).
Expected Users:  carbon cycle scientists; modelers; those interested in arctic ecosystems and greenhouse gas emissions
Metadata URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1300
Data Server URL(s):

http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1300
Archived Data Citation:  Zona, D., W. Oechel, C.E. Miller, S.J. Dinardo, R. Commane, J.O.W. Lindaas, R.Y-W. Chang, S.C. Wofsy, C. Sweeney, and A. Karion. 2015. CARVE-ARCSS: Methane Loss From Arctic- Fluxes From the Alaskan North Slope, 2012-2014. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1300

Site(s) of Data Collection:

68.00000,-153.30000
  [view google map]
 
Publications: Dupont, F., Tanguay, F., Li, M., Perron, G., Miller, C. E., Dinardo, S. J., Kurosu, T. P. 2012. CARVE-FTS observations of arctic CO 2 , CH 4 , and CO: overview of the instrument. Remote Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, Coastal Waters, and Large Water Regions 2012. DOI: 10.1117/12.979826

Fisher, J. B., Sikka, M., Oechel, W. C., Huntzinger, D. N., Melton, J. R., Koven, C. D., Ahlstrom, A., Arain, M. A., Baker, I., Chen, J. M., Ciais, P., Davidson, C., Dietze, M., El-Masri, B., Hayes, D., Huntingford, C., Jain, A. K., Levy, P. E., Lomas, M. R., Poulter, B., Price, D., Sahoo, A. K., Schaefer, K., Tian, H., Tomelleri, E., Verbeeck, H., Viovy, N., Wania, R., Zeng, N., Miller, C. E. 2014. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic. Biogeosciences. 11(15), 4271-4288. DOI: 10.5194/bg-11-4271-2014

Sedano, F., Randerson, J. T. 2014. Multi-scale influence of vapor pressure deficit on fire ignition and spread in boreal forest ecosystems. Biogeosciences. 11(14), 3739-3755. DOI: 10.5194/bg-11-3739-2014

Miller, C. E., Dinardo, S. J. 2012. CARVE: The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment. 2012 IEEE Aerospace Conference. DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2012.6187026

Oechel, W. C., Laskowski, C. A., Burba, G., Gioli, B., Kalhori, A. A. M. 2014. Annual patterns and budget of CO 2 flux in an Arctic tussock tundra ecosystem. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 119(3), 323-339. DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002431

Zona, D., Lipson, D. A., Richards, J. H., Phoenix, G. K., Liljedahl, A. K., Ueyama, M., Sturtevant, C. S., Oechel, W. C. 2014. Delayed responses of an Arctic ecosystem to an extreme summer: impacts on net ecosystem exchange and vegetation functioning. Biogeosciences. 11(20), 5877-5888. DOI: 10.5194/bg-11-5877-2014

Rogers, B. M., Soja, A. J., Goulden, M. L., Randerson, J. T. 2015. Influence of tree species on continental differences in boreal fires and climate feedbacks. Nature Geoscience. 8(3), 228-234. DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2352

Archived Data Citations: Karion, A., C. Sweeney, J.B. Miller, A.E. Andrews, R. Commane, S.J. Dinardo, J. Henderson, J.O.W. Lindaas, J. Lin, K. Luus, T. Newberger, P. Tans, S.C. Wofsy, S. Wolter, and C.E. Miller. 2016. CARVE: CH4, CO2, and CO Atmospheric Concentrations, CARVE Tower, Alaska, 2012-2014. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1316

Zona, D., W. Oechel, C.E. Miller, S.J. Dinardo, R. Commane, J.O.W. Lindaas, R.Y-W. Chang, S.C. Wofsy, C. Sweeney, and A. Karion. 2015. CARVE-ARCSS: Methane Loss From Arctic- Fluxes From the Alaskan North Slope, 2012-2014. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1300

Veraverbeke, S., B.M. Rogers, and J.T. Randerson. 2015. CARVE: Alaskan Fire Emissions Database (AKFED), 2001-2013. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1282

Parazoo, N.C., R. Commane, S.C. Wofsy, C.D. Koven, C. Sweeney, D.M. Lawrence, J.O.W. Lindaas, R.Y-W. Chang, and C.E. Miller. 2016. CARVE: Monthly Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (2009-2013) and Modeled Fluxes, Alaska. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1325

Luus, K., and J. Lin. 2016. CARVE Modeled Gross Ecosystem CO2 Exchange and Respiration, Alaska, 2012-2014. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1314

Chang, R.Y-W., R. Commane, J.W. Budney, B.C. Daube, A. Dayalu, E.W. Gottlieb, J.O.W. Lindaas, S. Miller, M. Pender, J.V. Pittman, J. Samra, B. Xiang, and S.C. Wofsy. 2016. CARVE: L2 Atmospheric CO2, CO and CH4 Concentrations, Harvard CRDS, Alaska, 2012-2014. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1403

Sweeney, C., J.B. Miller, A. Karion, S.J. Dinardo, and C.E. Miller. 2016. CARVE: L2 Atmospheric CO2, CO and CH4 Concentrations, NOAA CRDS, Alaska, 2012-2015. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1401

Budney, J.W., R.Y-W. Chang, R. Commane, B.C. Daube, A. Dayalu, S.J. Dinardo, E.W. Gottlieb, A. Karion, J.O.W. Lindaas, C.E. Miller, J.B. Miller, S. Miller, M. Pender, J.V. Pittman, J. Samra, C. Sweeney, S.C. Wofsy, and B. Xiang. 2016. CARVE: L2 Merged Atmospheric CO2, CO, O3 and CH4 Concentrations, Alaska, 2012-2015. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. DOI: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1402

2015 NASA Carbon Cycle & Ecosystems Joint Science Workshop Poster(s)
  • The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) Measurements of Seasonal to Interannual Variability in Alaskan CO2 and CH4 Fluxes   --   (Charles Miller)   [abstract]
5th NACP All-Investigators Meeting Posters (2015):
  • Calculating the regional scale carbon flux from Alaska -- (Roisin Commane, Jakob Lindaas, Rachel Chang, Kristina Luus, Charles Miller, Steven Dinardo, John Henderson, Marikate Ellis Mountain, Anna Karion, Colm Sweeney, John Miller, John C. Lin, Bruce Daube, Jasna Pittman, Steven Wofsy) [abstract]
  • Developing high resolution burned area and carbon emissions time series for boreal forest ecosystems -- (Sander Veraverbeke, Brendan Morris Rogers, James T. Randerson) [abstract]
4th NACP All-Investigators Meeting Posters (2013):
  • The state of land surface model uncertainty for the Alaskan Arctic -- (Joshua B. Fisher, Munish Sikka, Walt C. Oechel, Charles D. Koven, Deborah Nicole Huntzinger, Anders Ahlström, M. Altaf Arain, Ian Baker, Philippe Ciais, Carl Davidson, Michael Dietze, Bassil El-Masri, Daniel Hayes, Chris Huntingford, Atul K Jain, Peter E. Levy, Mark R. Lomas, Benjamin Poulter, David Price, Alok Kumar Sahoo, Kevin M Schaefer, Hanqin Tian, Enrico Tomelleri, Hans Verbeeck, Nicolas Viovy, Ning Zeng, Charles Miller) [abstract]
3rd NACP All-Investigators Meeting Posters (2011):
  • CARVE - The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment -- (Charles E. Miller, Steven Dinardo) [abstract]

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